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CASE REPORTLesch-Nyhan Syndrome in a Chinese Family with Mutation in the Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phosphoribosyltransferase Gene by Jiao Huang, Chu Zhang, Qinxian Guo, Xianfeng Zhang, Lizhen Ma, Yuhong Zhan, Yu Chen

Background: Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is a congenital X-linked recessive neurogenetic disorder caused by mutations in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene. The main clinical manifestation includes hyperuricemia, juvenile-onset gouty arthritis, and neurological developmental disorders. Studies have reported more than 400 HPRT gene mutation sites, but the incidence of LNS in the Chinese population is extremely low.
Methods: Here we report a 16-year-old male patient who suffered neurological dysfunction at an early age and gouty arthritis in his youth.
Results: No activity of the HPRT enzyme was detected in the erythrocytes. Furthermore, we found a mutation on exon 3 of the HPRT gene in the patient and his mother (exon 3: c.143G>A), which resulted in arginine to histidine (p.R48H) substitution in the encoded protein. The same mutation was reported in several European families, but was found for the first time in a Chinese family.
Conclusions: Clinicians in China have poor experience in diagnosing LNS cases due to the low incidence in China. Therefore, LNS screening for infants or adolescents with hyperuricemia, gouty arthritis, and neurological dysfunction should be performed.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2017.170813